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By Aaron D. Rubin

With a written background of approximately 5 thousand years, the Semitic languages contain one of many global s earliest attested and longest attested households. renowned family members contain Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and Akkadian. This quantity presents an outline of this crucial language family members, together with either old and smooth languages. After a short advent to the background of the relatives and its inner type, next chapters conceal themes in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon.Each bankruptcy describes positive factors which are attribute of the Semitic language kin as an entire, in addition to a few of the extra amazing advancements that happen within the person languages. this offers either a typological evaluation and an outline of extra specified positive aspects. The chapters include ample examples from a variety of languages. all of the examples comprise morpheme through morpheme glosses, in addition to translations, which assist in making those examples transparent and available even to these now not conversant in a given language. Concluding the booklet is an in depth advisor to additional examining, which directs the reader to an important reference instruments and secondary literature, and an updated bibliography.This short creation features a wealthy number of facts, and covers issues no longer as a rule present in brief sketches similar to this. The readability of presentation makes it necessary not just to these within the box of Semitic linguistics, but additionally to the overall linguist or language fanatic who needs to profit whatever approximately this significant language family members.

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The French construction il y a. 'there is/are'). Even languages that have a special existential particle often make use of the simple verb 'to be' to express existence in the past and future (80-81). ' (Exod. sim hen Many Semitic languages have developed existential particles, the sources of which are varied (Rubin 2005). Some of these particles derive from locative prepositions. For example, a num­ In some languages, there is a special negative existential parti­ cle, for example, Biblical Hebrew len 'there is/are not' (vs.

The extensio n of this type of intensive pattern Into a true InflectIOnal compara tive is likely an internal dev el­ opment within Arabic. aCCaC from Ara bic (though in Mehri it is rath er rare). 5 COORDINATION Coordination of elements or phrases is nonnally indicate d by means of a prochtIC or enc litic particle. The most com mon of these is the prefixed particle *wa- (in some languages real ized as wo- or u-), which is found in nearly all Semitic languag es, with the notable exceptIOn of som e modern Ethiopian languag es (69).

Moreover, the functions of a particular stem in one language do not always correspond with its functions in another language. , 7etqabbal 'be received', D-Stem qabbel 'receive'). It is important to point out that a derived stem verb need not have a corresponding G·Stem verb. For example, in Arabic, the verb 7arsala 'send' is a C·Stem verb, but the root RSL does not occur in the G·Stem. There is no other verb from which 7arsala can be derived as a causative. As another example, in Mehri , the 47 verb sanas 'dare' (root 7NS) is a 5 1 ·Stem (a type of C·Stem spe· cific to Modem South Arabian), but this is the only stem in which this root occurs.

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