By Laura McPherson
Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As in basic terms the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a serious source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with separating nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less usually as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone method of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone approach of H and L, yet those detailed tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a notice is usually overwritten by way of syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone should be changed with L whether it is possessed by way of a non-pronominal possessor, and via both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a chain of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic elements like walk in the park.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Tommo So
Where gemination is the result of a morphophonological rule, I include the base form. dɛ̀nɛ́ ‘spend the day’ dɛ̀nnɛ́ ‘look for’ b. dàmá ‘taboo’ dàmmá ‘type of hoe’ c. gìɲɛ́ ‘beg’ gìɲɲɛ́ ‘intersperse’ d. úwɔ ‘yours’ túwwɔ́ ‘nine’ e. dùyɔ́ ‘insult’ dùyyɔ́ ‘carry’ < dùy-íyɔ́ f. yɛ̀lɛ̀ ‘he came’ yɛ́ llɛ̀ ‘he’ll come’ < yɛ́ lɛ̀-dɛ̀ (11) a. The geminate approximants [ll] and [yy] derive from vowel syncope, and in the case of [ll], subsequent regressive assimilation of /d/ to [l]. 2 for further discussion of this rule.
These are all listed below: (31) a. b. Stems with /ɔɔn/ dɔ́ ɔ́ n ‘gutter spout’ jɔ̀ɔ́ n ‘draw’ pɔ̀ɔ́ n ‘fonio’ sɔ́ ɔ́ n ‘douse (ﬁre)’ tɔ́ ɔ́ n ‘ﬁll up’ Stems with /ɛɛn/ ɛ́ ɛ́ n ‘tighten; marry; tough’ pɛ́ ɛ́ n ‘get old’ tɛ́ ɛ́ n ‘hobble (a donkey)’ As we can see, all nasal vowels are peripheral phonemes in Tommo So, but I take the appearance in at least one regular lexical item as the criterion for determining phonemic status. Given this, we are left with a three-way contrast in nasal vowels, between /aan/, /ɔɔn/, and /ɛɛn/.
It contrasts with /ɛ/ in backness (and rounding), /u/ and /a/ in height, and /o/ in ATR. 4 /a/ The vowel /a/ is a low central unrounded vowel. It can sometimes be reduced to extra-short [a̯], as in [kádá̯ná] ‘oldest man in the village’, but the pronunciation of this reduced vowel is lower than that of [ə], the allophone of /u/ and /i/. Given that it is neither front nor back, I contrast it in the following pairs with both front mid /ɛ/ and back mid /ɔ/. 5 /ɛ/ The vowel /ɛ/ is a front mid unrounded vowel, speciﬁed as [-ATR].