By Dr. Gerard J. Steen, Aletta G. Dorst, J. Berenike Herrmann, Anna A. Kaal, Tina Krennmayr, Trijntje Pasma
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Additional resources for A Method for Linguistic Metaphor Identification: From MIP to MIPVU (Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research)
It should be noted that similarity is not the same as class-inclusion, as in the case of synecdoche. Thus, for appeal we have an abstract general sense and a more concrete but also specialized legal sense. If we decide that the latter is basic because it is more concrete, then the general sense of appeal is a case of generalization instead of similarity, and it can therefore be treated as a case of synecdoche instead of metaphor. This should be contrasted with a case like palliate, where we see both generalization and similarity based on metaphorical mapping from concrete (relieve physical pain) to abstract (relieve generally bad situations of their most serious aspects).
The contextual meaning of verbs used transitively can as a rule not be compared with the meaning of the same verbs used intransitively. the contextual meaning of nouns used to designate countable entities can as a rule not be compared with the meaning of the same nouns used to designate uncountable entities. However, there are a number of complications: 2. When a word may be used in more than one grammatical category, but its description in the dictionary is limited to one of those categories only, you inevitably have to compare the various meanings of the word in the other grammatical categories with reference to that one grammatical category.
The contextual meaning, instead, is the result of a free combination of a verb plus an adverb. BNC has probably made a mistake here; the words consequently have to be analyzed as two separate lexical units. Thirdly, there is the matter of complex phrasal verbs, such as make up for or do away with. These may be easily confused with combinations of simple phrasal verbs with a preposition (make up + for or do away + with). However, they are typically listed as complete, complex phrasal verbs in the Macmillan dictionary, as run-ons after the main verb, and they can be replaced by a synonym (compensate and get rid of).