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By Tolemariam Fufa

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The base of this verb is akkäl- ‘to be equal, to equal, to add, to extend’. This verb is a non-agentive intransitive verb. The impersonal passive/middle t(ä)-akkäl- ‘to be equal, to extend’ is formed by affixation of the tä- morpheme to the base of this verb. In fact the affixation can be accompanied by stem reduplication to derive the middle täkakkäl- ‘to be equal with someone’. The causative marking as- is prefixed to this middle base to derive the causative verb while further affixation of tä- to the base of the causative derives the middle verb.

He also says that the morpheme tästä- is prefixed to reduplicated stems and forms the intransitive [middle] equivalent of transitive verbs as in (Appleyard 1995:292) tästäkakkälä ‘be even, adjusted to’, astäkakkälä ‘make even, adjust, arrange’. In order to investigate whether astä- is a causative morpheme or not we need to consider the bases to which such morpheme is attached; we cite examples from Kane (1990). The verb astämar- ‘to teach’ is derived from the non-existing base 32 The Causative in Amharic marä.

But there is plenty of evidence which shows as- is a single causative morpheme (see Baye 1986 [1994]; Appleyard 1972; Leslau 1967, 1995; Tolemariam forthcoming ). The morpheme as- is prefixed parallel to a- derivatives to derive indirect causatives as shown below: 13a. ’ 13b. ’ 14a. ’ bet a-mät’t’-ahu-t house CAUS-come-1S:PF-3MSO 31 Chapter 3 14b. )’ and in (14a) a-mät’t’- ‘bring’ are simple causatives of non-agentive and agentive intransitive verbs respectively. Indirect causative counterparts of such single causatives are formed by the prefixation of the morpheme as- as shown in (13b) and (14b) where the number of arguments is increased by one as compared to the direct derived causative and by two as compared to the underived stem.

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