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Extra resources for Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry

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4-Methyl-2-pentanol. Ethers and Alkyl Halides For the nomenclature for ethers and alkyl halides the functional group is considered to be a substituent of the main alkane chain. The functional group is numbered and named as a substituent: Fig. (a) 1-Chloropropane: (b) 1-methoxypropane. In ethers we have two alkyl groups on either side of the oxygen. The larger alkyl group is the parent alkane. The smaller alkyl group along with the oxygen is the substituent and is called an alkoxy group. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 30 Aldehydes and Ketones The suffix for an aldehyde (or alkanal) is -anal, and the suffix for a ketone (or alkanone) is -anone.

Iii) Functional groups involving single bonds and containing oxygen: R—OH (a) O R R (b) Fig. (a) Alcohol or alkanol; (b) ether. (iv) Functional groups involving double bonds and 42 Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry containing oxygen: Fig. (a) Aldehyde or alkanal; (b) ketone or alkanone; (c) carboxylic acid; (d) carboxylic acid chloride; (e) carboxylic acid anhydride; (f) ester; (g) amide; (h) phenol. (v) Functional groups containing a halogen atom: Fig. (a) Aryl halide (X = F, Cl, Br, l); (b) alkyl halide or halogenoalkane (X = F, Cl, Br, l); (c) acid chloride.

Intermolecular ionic bonding of amino acids. Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding can occur if molecules have a hydrogen atom attached to a heteroatom like nitrogen or oxygen. The common functional groups that can participate in hydrogen bonding are alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, amides and amines. Hydrogen bonding is possible because of the polar nature of the N–H or O–H bond. Nitrogen and oxygen are more electronegative than hydrogen. Thus, the heteroatom gains a slightly negative charge and the hydrogen gains a slightly positive charge.

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