By John Clarke, Du Quan, M. J. Ferrari, J. J. Kingston, A. H. Miklich, F. C. Wellstood (auth.), Dr. Koji Kajimura, Prof. Dr. Hisao Hayakawa (eds.)
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Extra resources for Advances in Superconductivity III: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS ’90), November 6–9, 1990, Sendai
Generally speaking, any inhomogeneity can work as a pinning center. The problem is how effective it is. In the following discussion we estimate how large Ie values can be expected by the 211 inclusions observed in the MPMG grown crystals. Estimation of the pinning force The elementary pinning energy Up, which is the energy gained per umt mteraction between the fluxoid and the non-superconducting particle of the 211 is given by Up= (He 2/81t) 1t~2l where He is the thermodynamical critical field, ~ is the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length, and I is the size of the 211.
4) Crystal-field excitations due to localized felectrons. (5) Magnetic excitations such as magnons. ERS in the high temperature superconductors is dominated by a broad continuum that does not fit any of the above cases. Here we will cite evidence for this continuum 6ver a broad energy range and will present recent results from our group on its behavior for values of Raman frequency shift ro of almost 0 to 1000 em-I in both normal and superconducting states of YBa2Cu307~ (YBCO). , who found that it extended from ro = 0 to beyond 4000 em-I (1/2 eV) in a YBCO film.
The 45" grain boundaries so formed provide a region of lowered critical current density, and thus form one or more junctions in the microbridge. Junctions with relatively low critical current density (S 105 A cm- 2 ) can exhibit  almost ideal resistively shunted junction (RSJ) behavior , while those with higher critical current densities exhibit behavior consistent with flux flow and flux creep . The nature of the junction remains elusive; the boundary layer between the weak links may be normal, semiconducting, insulating (albeit with a linear quasiparticle resistance) or superconducting with a reduced energy gap.