Download An Environmental History of Ancient Greece and Rome by Lukas Thommen PDF

By Lukas Thommen

In historic Greece and Rome an ambiguous dating constructed among guy and nature, and this decisively made up our minds the style during which they taken care of the surroundings. at the one hand, nature was once conceived as an area characterised and inhabited by way of divine powers, which deserved applicable recognize. at the different, a rationalist view emerged, in response to which people have been to subdue nature utilizing their applied sciences and to put off its assets. This publication systematically describes the ways that the Greeks and Romans intervened within the surroundings and hence strains the heritage of the strain among the exploitation of assets and the safety of nature, from early Greece to the interval of overdue antiquity. even as it analyses the great commencing up of the Mediterranean and the northern frontier areas, either for payment and for monetary job. The book's point and procedure make it hugely available to scholars and non-specialists.

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Taking in view the goal of good protection of the environment, a long term policy, based on the prevention, is more important than an often-too-Iate action programme set up when an acute incident or accident arises (or when the adverse consequences of a persistent low level of a particular chemical become obvious). Such a policy for prevention cannot be established if one does not have in advance enough information to appreciate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the potential risks of chemical substances.

The following three broad classifications were established: a) Inorganic substances (including organo metallic compounds) b) Organo-halogenated compounds c) Other organic compounds One goal of the 1978 International Workshop was to develop a more detailed categorization of organic compounds and to establish a list of high-priority categories and substances for inclusion in an environmental monitoring programme. The development of categories for organic compounds was based on functional groups; the arrangement of organic compounds by functional groups is a valid approach, due to common structural features and similarities in their physico-chemical properties (for example, water and fat solubility, chemical reactivities and biological behaviour).

A commitment was then made to transform the existing ad hoc storage operation into a viable specimen bank, as an integral component of a CWS national monitoring program for toxic chemicals in wildlife. Past and Present Programs Past toxic chemical work conducted by CWS has taken the form of intensive investigations of specific local or regional threats to wildlife health. The analytical focus has been on the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury. The species of concern have mainly been birds, due to their sensitivity to the effects of these and other contaminants, and in particular migratory birds as CWS has a specific mandate to protect this group.

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