By E. Schoffeniels
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Additional info for Anti-Chance. A Reply to Monod's Chance and Necessity
E. a maximum of disorder. The biosphere evidently belongs to another class of physical system. It is a system whose characteristic principle is its existence far from an equilibrium state as conceived by the second principle. Its entropy is not therefore maximum and there is a continuous flow of energy through the system. ) become equally constant with respect to time. In other systems undergoing an energy flow and which are far from equilibrium (without being in a stationary state), the exact significance of the intensity factors is not always clear.
In Chapter 5, I develop the example of certain euryhaline species, which utilize oxygen or α-ketonic acid as electron acceptor according to the environ- T H E BASIS FOR A THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 41 Fig. 1. Molecular order in an ecosystem. T h e primary energy source is r a d i a n t energy. A, ß , . . , F are electron d o n o r s or a n immediate source of chemical energy while I/, V, . . , Ζ are terminal electron acceptors. Intermediates between the immediate energy source, for example A a n d the sink U, are not represented for the sake of clarity of the scheme.
The membrane is adiabatic and the sole energy flow crossing this barrier is the movement of the gas molecules. The temperature gradient is Ιοί P. Glansdorff a n d I. Prigogine, Thermodynamic tuations, Wiley Interscience, L o n d o n , 1971. C. B* Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluc- 22 ANTI-CHANCE calized at the level of the membrane. U n d e r these conditions it can be demonstrated that the concentration of gas molecules in 1 will be different from that in 2. Another famous example is that of Bénard's rings.