By A. Halanay, V. Rasvan

The yr 1992 marks the centennial anniversary of book of the distinguished monograph "The basic challenge of balance of movement" written via A. M. Liapunov. This anniversary conjures up to contemplate the way in which thought and purposes have built in this century. the 1st commentary possible make is that the so-called "second method", these days referred to as the "Liapunov functionality method", has got extra awareness than the "first method"; allow us to additionally point out the learn of severe situations, which introduced extra awareness lately in reference to the examine of bifurcations and with nonlinear stabilization. one of many purposes of recognition of the Liapunov functionality process may be the truth that, in lots of events in technology and engineering, and never merely in mechanics, which used to be the most resource of idea for the paintings of Liapunov, traditional Liapunov capabilities could be proposed, in detail hooked up with the homes of the methods. it truly is one of many reasons of this e-book to recommend this concept. From the mathematical point of view, the century after the 1st look ance of Liapunov's monograph has been characterised either through normal izations and by way of refinements of Liapunov's principles. yet we suppose that the main unbelievable development is the knowledge of the broad probabilities open for purposes by means of balance thought as built by means of Liapunov a century in the past. we now have attempted to teach a few of the rules during this course through begin ing with our own event within the learn of a few models.

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**Extra resources for Applications of Liapunov Methods in Stability**

**Example text**

_ CXt-,Dt-,) F _ ~, ~t-' Qo g(H + Zo) and the Sylvester conditions read ( ~ _ cx, D, _ ~, ... _ CXt-, Dt-, ) F _ ~t-' It is thus enough to check thet Q0 CXk D) k F (~ - n-' f, T > g(H + Zo) Qo 0 1 2 g(H+Zo) > , .. ~ . 4 43 Liapunov Functions in Hydraulic Engineering Taking into account the fact that CXo n-1 0 ' " (X,le. le. _ _ L k=1 (l - ~le. fln 1 Ole. fln-1 (l 1 ~le. (Appendix F) the following stability condition is obtained Qo F > Fer = (H + 9 Z)' 0 fl,-l ~le. fln • 1 Ole. 1). xle. =0 , i = 1, ...

Tk. 3 Liapunov Function set in G, we deduce that 0 C M. It follows that either lim Ix(t)1 = ° t-oo 00 or lim d( x( t), 0) = 0, that is lim d( x( t), M) = which ends the proof. t .... oo t .... oo Throughout the proof, the use was made of invariance properties of several sets among which 0, the w-limit set of a solution. 5 is called the invariance principle. 5 are important. 1) on D, and if M C D, then M is an attractor and D is contained in the basin of attraction of M. 5 it follows ° that d(x(t), M) -+ for t -+ 00 if x(to) E D.

3 Liapunov Function 33 oA oA If oq (q) = 0 we have also oq (q)q = O. Therefore o2A Jo' q* oqoq (sq)qds = 0 o2A o2A But we assumed that oqoq ~ all hence q* oqoq(Sq)q ~ alq*q and ~~ (q) = 0 implies q = 0 (at least locally). invariant set for which F( q, p) We have further: A( q) We deduce that the maximal = 0 consists of the equilibrium (0,0). o2A = J0l 110 sq* oqoq (rsq)qdrds ~ Denoting V( q, p) = p F( q, p) - l( q, F( q, p)) = ol = Oq,(q,F(q,p))F(q,p) -l(q,F(q,p)) we have V(q,V) = A(q) + V(q,V).