By C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)
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Extra resources for Applied Physical Chemistry
325 kN m-2 . In the case of a dissolved substance, it is also necessary to stipulate concentration as well as pressure and the standard state in this case is an infmitely dilute solution at standard atmospheric pressure. If a solute dissolved in water is in its standard state, the symbol (aq) is placed after the chemical symbol of the solute in the thermochemical equation; at any other composition, either the concentration or the number of moles of solvent associated with each mole of solute is given in parentheses.
All these deductions are qualitatively in agreement with observation. 1 over most of the range shown, but the van der Waals equation, like the ideal-gas equation, becomes less satisfactory at higher pressure. Values of a and bare published for many common gases and vapours 2 , and the van der Waals equation finds many applications in approximate calculations in gaseous systems. 00 dm 3 capacity is to be filled with 644 g of carbon tetrachloride and then heated to 650 K; it is desired to calculate the pressure developed.
1). The vessel, in addition to acting as a container, also functions as a heat reservoir by supplying a quantity of heat dqe when the gas expands, or by accepting a quantity dqc on compression. 1 that dqe =dU+Px dV where Px d Vis the work done by the gas against the opposing pressure. If the process is isothermal, dU will be zero, since molecular energy is independent of volume; there I? 1 Expansion-compression cycle for an ideal gas are no forces between the molecules of an ideal gas and consequently their energy is independent of their separation.