By Richard Muir (auth.)
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He did not have an accomplished command of the different fields of technical expertise involved in landscape history; M. W. Beresford, a contemporary of Hoskins's, was a better all-rounder. Beresford produced his History on the Ground just two years after the publication of TheMaking of the English Landscape. It was accessible and organised around six journeys or case studies in local history, but though well-written and much admired by students and scholars it failed to capture the national imagination in the manner of Hoskins's more romantic and idiosyncratic style.
In many parts of Europe, the situation was quite different, and continuity and assimilation had led to a blurring of distinctions and a broadening of tradition. In parts of England, for example, openfield farming had existed for a thousand years when the transformation of landscapes and societies by industrialisation began. Apart from a few Scottish incursions and the widely-welcomed arrival of William of Orange, there had been no invasion since the landing of Landscape History and Landscape Heritage 19 the Normans in 1066, and any cultural differences existing between the provinces were not hard-edged: one might argue all day about whether or not a Suffolk or a Norfolk culture existed, while supposedly 'Celtic' cultural landscape features could prove to be pre-Celtic or non-Celtic.
Carl 0. Sauer (1889-1975), its founder: contributed more to our interest in landscape than perhaps any other American geographer. Sauer's published writings, as varied and far ranging as they indeed are, examine the role of human activity in altering the natural environment to create the cultural landscape. For Sauer ... an understanding of the culture that sculptured a landscape was requisite. (Kenzer, 1985 p. 258) Olwig commented that: In 1939, when Richard Hartshorne published The Nature of Geography, he noted that landscape was 'perhaps the single most important word in the geographic language' of a relatively young American university discipline.