By Nathan T. Arrington
Ashes, photographs, and stories argues that the establishment of public burial for the conflict lifeless and photographs of the deceased in civic and sacred areas essentially replaced how humans conceived of army casualties in fifth-century Athens. In a interval characterised via battle and the specter of civil strife, the nascent democracy claimed the fallen for town and honored them with rituals and photographs that formed a civic ideology of fight and self-sacrifice on behalf of a unified neighborhood. whereas such a lot stories of Athenian public burial have occupied with discrete elements of the establishment, reminiscent of the funeral oration, this publication broadens the scope. It examines the presence of the conflict useless in cemeteries, civic and sacred areas, the house, and the brain, and underscores the function of fabric culture--from casualty lists to white-ground lekythoi--in mediating that presence. This process finds that public rites and monuments formed stories of the conflict useless on the collective and person degrees, spurring inner most commemorations that either engaged with and critiqued the hot beliefs and the citys claims to the physique of the warrior. confronted with a collective concept of «the fallen,» households asserted the features, virtues, and relations hyperlinks of the person deceased, and sought to get better possibilities for personal commemoration and private remembrance. Contestation over the presence and reminiscence of the lifeless frequently classification strains, with the elite claiming carrier and management to the neighborhood whereas while reviving Archaic and aristocratic commemorative discourses. even supposing Classical Greek paintings has a tendency to be seen as a monolithic if evolving complete, this ebook depicts a fragmented and charged visible global.
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Extra resources for Ashes, Images, and Memories: The Presence of the War Dead in Fifth-Century Athens
Touching the dead was probably the prerogative more of women than men because of the pollution posed by the corpse and the female association with pregnancy, which also caused pollution: Shapiro 1991, 634–636. For more on touch and funerals, see Chaniotis 2006, 219–226. 52. Stupperich 1977, 69–70. 53. See n. 1 above. 5a: mourners gather around a corpse, touching the body. 55 When unable to perform some funeral rites, kin such as Elektra could still provide a private burial for the ashes and mourn the dead in their homes.
36 Yet the bodies of the dead also stirred awe and admiration at the courage and sacrifice they illustrated, even when the body belonged to an enemy such as Masistios. Throughout Archaic poetry, there persists a valuation of the beauty of the corpse, and this continued in the Classical period. ”39 The institution of public burial began in this context of continued interest in warfare and valuation of the warrior’s body and in an environment of increased conflict and greater spectacle of the corpse.
Even without the body or the ashes present, families could erect private monuments to the war dead. Although private commemoration of the dead offered opportunities to the wealthy for display and for claims to kleos and aretē, watchwords of the Athenian aristocracy, it was available in some form to all. Simple stelai, plain pots, or mounds of dirt could serve as memorials for the deceased. For sixth-century Athenians from the mass and the elite, the presence of the body—real and represented—mattered for rituals, mourning, and remembrance.