By Majid Fakhry
This booklet presents a finished evaluate of the existence, occasions, and achievements of Averroes, a twelfth-century Muslim thinker whose rules have been so debatable that his books have been burnt now not as soon as, yet two times. a desirable creation that covers the entire key matters and underlines the significance of Islamic philosophy as an essential aspect in modern Western tradition.
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Additional info for Averroes: His Life, Works, and Influence (Great Islamic Writings)
3 2 Averroes treatises, as far as I know, it appears to have been part of the Islamic philosophical tradition, best illustrated in the parallel assertion of Averroes' predecessor, Avempace, in the preface to his own Paraphrase of the Physics. Averroes proceeds next to argue that logic is indispensable for clearly distinguishing the 'scientific' from the 'dialectical' statements made in the Physics, as well as the other Aristotelian treatises. It was part of Aristotle's practice, as every one of his readers will at once note, to start the discussion of these subjects with a review of the views of his predecessors, before proceeding to an exposition of his own views.
This famous tradition-monger, whose Musnad is one of the six canonical collections of Hadith, rejected out of hand any of the dialectical methods of proof that the Mu'tazilites had authorized. Condemned to prison and subjected to various forms of humiliation, including whipping, in the course of al-Ma'miin's imposition of the famous Mihna or Inquisition in 827, Ibn Hanbal stuck adamantly to his position that the Qur'an is "God's eternal and uncreated Word,'' in defiance of the Mu'tazilite contrary thesis that the Qur'an is created.
It is for this reason that the intellect, or the faculty of apprehending those first principles, may be regarded as the principle of principles. Having defined scientific knowledge as knowledge that the thing exists, coupled with the knowledge of the cause or causes whereby it exists, and having asserted that this knowledge culminates in the apprehension of the first principles upon which this knowledge ultimately rests, in an intuitive manner, Averroes turns to the discussion of the four causes, without the knowledge of which scientific knowledge is impossible.