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Download Biomass Sugars for Non-Fuel Applications by Dmitry Murzin, Olga Simakova (eds.) PDF

By Dmitry Murzin, Olga Simakova (eds.)

Biomass-derived sugars supply a wealthy, renewable feedstock for a various variety of chemical compounds, making them a promising and possible resource for the sustainable manufacture of numerous important items. Exploring eco-friendly sugar-based applied sciences past their functions in fuels, this e-book offers an outline of sugar-based applied sciences, describing their demanding situations and possibilities. It covers modifications of sugars into eco-friendly chemical substances in prescribed drugs, biodegradable polymers and surfactants. a distinct bankruptcy is devoted to the conversion of biomass into sugars, that is an important step within the sustainable usage of sugars. The ebook is a useful source for chemists and chemical engineers operating to boost greener man made routes to chemical substances and prescribed drugs

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Additional info for Biomass Sugars for Non-Fuel Applications

Example text

20 Chapter 1 group) and SNicB (2)-ro (nucleophilic substitution via intermediate ring opening) pathways. 7, to carry out the SNicB (2) mechanism, first the pyranose ring structure needs to be flipped, but this ring flipping is unfeasible in the case of crystalline cellulose because of severe hydrogen bonding, which makes the structure very rigid. Hence, it is probable that the alkali catalysed cellulose hydrolysis may happen via a SN1, SNicB (2)-ro mechanism. 5) and thus can hamper the yields of glucose.

This difference may arise from the orientation of sugars in these disaccharides. In starch hydrolysis, HNbMoO6 catalyst yielded a maximum of 45% glucose at 100 1C. 148 With an increase in W content in the catalyst, the formation of strongly acidic Conversion of Biomass into Sugars 31 Nb3W7 oxide species was observed. This in turn was responsible for improvements in the glucose yields (65%) from sucrose. However, due to the presence of low acid density in the Nb-W catalyst, it showed lower cellobiose hydrolysis activity.

Moreover, hydrolysis of inulin and starch has also been reported with HY catalyst to yield 92% fructose and 95% glucose, respectively. 5) (43%) under similar reaction conditions. The use of dealuminated H-form of mordenite (HMOR) (Si/Al ¼ 12) catalyst to produce 66% glucose from 70% maltose conversion at 130 1C is also known. 116 However, due to a lower hydrothermal stability, catalysts undergo deactivation via leaching of their active component in water. When cellulose is used as a substrate, due to its insolubility in most of the solvents, the reaction system becomes heterogeneous with respect to the substrate itself.

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