By Sandra Lapointe (auth.)
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Additional resources for Bolzano’s Theoretical Philosophy: An Introduction
On the other hand, many of the conceptions that were popular at the time took for granted that considerations of the “matter” of particular judgements – those aspects that are not strictly linked to their logical structure – should be seen as irrelevant A Substitutional Theory 45 to logic. As Bolzano conceived of it, logic is not concerned exclusively with the deﬁnition of properties propositions and inferences have by virtue of their form, but with a general study of the properties propositions and ideas have, which includes also the determination of such notions as truth, meaning, apriority and necessity, for instance.
By rejecting the view that “syncategorematic”, that is, logical terms should be seen to play a merely incidental role in the analysis of concepts he put into question the idea that then prevailed and according to which ideas contain only “categorematic” components, that is, concepts that have a reference when taken on their own. Bolzano’s approach is partly borrowed from grammatical analyses as they apply to sentences of natural languages. Bolzano assumes that the structure of ideas and propositions is similar to the structure of the linguistic items that compose natural languages.
N ]} The question whether we should take only the essential properties or all properties into consideration is not inconsequential. The latter is the case in Leibniz whom Bolzano takes to be the paradigm in this respect (cf. 1837, §64, 272). 4 (1) implies, for instance, that if being rational and being animal are essential properties of men, as was traditionally assumed, then the concepts of rationality and animality are comprised in the concept of humanity. When we decompose the concept of humanity, we ﬁnd therein these two concepts.