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By Don McGlinchey

Dealing with of powders and bulk solids is a serious business know-how, but is especially seldom noticeable at the curricula of chemistry or chemical engineering departments. Characterisation of Bulk Solids offers an realizing of the significance, thoughts and business program of particulate fabrics characterisation. Readers will achieve a greater in a position to diagnose solids dealing with and processing difficulties in undefined, and to accommodate specialists and kit providers from an educated perspective. Characterisation of Bulk Solids is directed at chemical engineers, scientists and technologists operating with powdered fabrics in a large spectrum of industries, comparable to agrochemicals, bulk and high-quality chemical substances, stable processing, petrochemicals, prescription drugs and plastics and polymers.

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19). 15 shows the main macroscopical shape descriptors from these measurements where the equivalent circular diameter (Deq ) is equal to 2(S/π )1/2 . ). Fmin , minimum Feret diameter; Fmax , maximum Feret diameter; Fa , Feret diameter, at angle α; L g , longest geodesic length; E, Euclidian thickness. 15 Main macroscopical shape descriptors. Name Formula Comments Form factor P 2 /4π S or 4π S/P 2 Roundness 2 = Deq /Fmax 4S/π Fmax Aspect ratio Elongation Curl Convexity Solidity Compactness Extent Fmax /Fmin L G /E Fmax /L G P/PC S/SC √ Roundness S/(Fmax Fmin ) Compares the surface of the object (S) to the surface of the disc of the same perimeter (P) Compares the surface of the object (S) to the surface of the disc of the same diameter (Fmax ) Aspect ratio substitute for a very elongated particle (fibre) For very elongated objects PC is the perimeter of the convex bounding polygon SC is the surface of the convex bounding polygon The other class of shape descriptor is the mesoshape descriptor, which can give a more detailed appreciation of shape because comparison is made with a reference shape.

Even if the on-line analysis has a quick response of only a few seconds or a fraction of a second, this will eventually be superseded by in-line and/or in situ particle-size and size-distribution measurements. In-line and in situ methods of characterising particulate systems attract the attention of industry because: (1) The physical characteristics of the particles in a chemical process influence both the dynamics of the process and the final product specification. (2) In a dynamic continuous chemical process, there should be a continuous dynamic measurement which can control the particle characteristics of the powdered material in terms of particle size, particle-size distribution, shape, bulk density and other particle or powder characteristics.

Scanning indentation mechanical microprobes (SIMM) can also test the hardness of complex coatings and inhomogeneous structures (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK). 3 Particle fracture: Griffith crack fracture and stress-intensity factors Dependent upon the degree of force applied to a solid surface, via an indenter, radial cracks may originate from the sides or corners of the indent impression in addition to the impression created by the pyramidal indenter. These indentation cracks can be used, in addition to the indent size, to calculate hardness numbers and thus characterise the mechanical properties of discrete or compacted particles.

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