By Hamish Maxwell-Stewart
In October 1827, 9 convicts who had persevered years of incredible cruelty by the hands of the process opted for "state-assisted" break out. 5 terrified witnesses—their arms and ft bound—were pressured to observe because the chained convicts seized Constable George Rex and drowned him within the tannin-stained waters of the harbour. whilst the sentence of demise used to be said upon them, the condemned prisoners uttered only one note in answer: Amen.
For 12 lengthy years among 1822 and 1834, Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour used to be the main feared position in Australia. Clinging to the shorelines of the wild west coast of Tasmania and hemmed in on both sides by means of rugged uncharted wasteland, the surroundings itself shaped the legal partitions that restricted the unlucky convict re-offenders who have been despatched there. however the stipulations have been so brutal that many went mad, or selected dying or a truly doubtful get away into the bush instead of spend their time during this infamous position. according to unique debts from the time, Closing Hell's Gates includes dozens of non-public tales of the tough and unforgiving lifestyles that folks have been pressured to guide, either as convict and overseer, and in so doing unearths a few startling insights approximately human nature while it really is driven to extremes.
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Additional resources for Closing Hell's Gates: The Life and Death of a Convict Station
Urban VIII (1623–1644), having survived two attempts on his life by clerics, died peacefully at the age of seventy-six. Urban, who was born Maffeo Barberini, earned for himself the unflattering epigram “Quod non fecerunt Barbari fecerunt Barberini” (“What the Barbarians did not do, the Barberini did”) when he took the ornamental bronze girders from the Pantheon to make armaments for his wars, melting them down after the peace to provide material for Bernini’s baldacchino over the main altar in St.
138–142), St. Pius I (c. 142–c. 155), St. Anicetus (c. 155–c. 166), St. Soter (c. 166–c. 174), St. Eleutherius (c. 174–189), St. Victor I (189–198), St. Zephyrinus (198/9–217), St. Urban I (222–230), St. Lucius I (253–254), St. Stephen I (254–257), St. Felix I (269–274), St. Gaius (283–296), St. Marcellinus (296–304), St. Marcellus I (306–308), and St. Miltiades (311–314) were suppressed in the 1970 revision of the Roman Calendar for want of documentation on their supposed martyrdoms. the pope is dead!
Hence, all subsequent popes called Stephen have a dual numbering. 22 heirs of the fisherman John XI (931–935) was one of the most unfit incumbents ever to sit on the Throne of Peter. The illegitimate son of Pope Sergius III (904–911) and Marozia, the female senator and all-powerful ruler of Rome at the time, he was elevated to the papacy in his early twenties. Living up to the maxim that he who lives in a glass house ought not cast stones, he ratified the Byzantine emperor Romanus I’s appointment of his sixteen-year-old son Theophylact as patriarch of Constantinople, dispatching two bishops as his legates to consecrate and enthrone the boy, to the understandable shock of the Eastern Church.