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BACKGROUND 23 NOTES AND REFERENCES 1. See, for example, A Primer on Greenhouse Gases: CO2, Report No. S. , March 1988. 2. S. , June 12, 1989. 3. V. Ramanathan, R. J. Cicerone, H. B. Singh, and J. T. Kiehl, "Trace Gas Trends and Their Potential Role in Climate Change," Geophys. , 90: 5547–5566, 1985. 4. V. Ramanathan et al, "Climate and the Earth's Radiation Budget," Physics Today, 42:(5) p. 22, May 1989, 5. , 1990. 6. , 1989. 7. C. 1989. 8. , June 14–15, 1988. 9. Energy Policies to Address Global Climate Chance, Workshop Proceedings (unpublished), University of California, Davis, September 6–8, 1989.
Indeed, the present study is an example of how congressional concern about greenhouse warming and climate change is an attempt to shift energy R&D priorities yet again. The sensitivity of executive branch programs to changes in the presidency is sometimes countered by congressional attempts at stabilization. An example of this is in the fossil energy program, where 80 percent of projects have been subjected to line-item legislation. Technical management of energy R&D programs could be improved significantly if elected officials in both the executive and legislative branches exercised restraint.
Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. A FRAMEWORK FOR PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING ENERGY R&D 30 authority for fossil energy, renewables, conservation, and nuclear reactor R&D declined from FY 1979 to FY 1989, while the trend in the late 1980s in nuclear energy R&D was to increase the military component. In the end the key question concerning the performance of the federal civilian energy R&D program is whether it has succeeded in producing or assisting a significant number of energy technologies to reach technological maturity and market commercialization.