Environmental Policy

Download Costs of air pollution control: analyses of emission control by Stefan Reis PDF

By Stefan Reis

The writer starts off with an advent within the state of affairs of pollution in Europe within the overdue Nineties and places the influence of photooxidant concentrations into viewpoint. From there, emmission resources are analysed intimately and a state of affairs for a business-as-usual improvement is brought. Indicating the significance of price evaluate and the necessity for affordable abatement concepts, the ebook then brings jointly measures and prices and introduces the modeling process taken. eventually, modeling effects are mentioned intimately, besides assessing merits of more desirable air caliber degrees.

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Annex B). This detailed projection of the fuel mix and the development of fuel shares is important, since the NOx emission factors of solid fuels, oil and natural gas are significantly different. Furthermore, costs and reduction efficiencies of emission abatement measures for power plants are fuel-dependent as well (see Chap. 6 Political and Legislative Framework for Projection In addition to the anticipated changes in activity levels described in the previous section, political decision and legislative measures can have a major effect on emissions, namely the specific emission factors of processes or plants..

9. and Fig. 10. display on the example of Germany the development of emissions by sector in the course of ten years, clearly indicating the impact emission control options have on different sectors, such as, for instance, the introduction of less emitting vehicles in road transport. As both the development of NOx and NMVOC emissions indicate significant changes and thus gradually shifting relative contributions of individual source sectors, it becomes clear that for a detailed assessment of future reduction potentials, emission projections on the basis of policies and legislation in place or in pipeline – by country and sector – are essential.

G. 4 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) In addition to the directives that have been described above, the EU has a set of common rules on issuing permits for industrial installations, which are defined in the so-called IPPC Directive of 1996 (96/61/EC). IPPC stands for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. Basically, the IPPC Directive is about minimising pollution from various point sources throughout the European Union (cf. OECD, 1996a). All installations covered by Annex I of the Directive are required to obtain an authorisation (permit) from the authorities in the EU countries.

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