Foreign Language Dictionaries Thesauruses

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By Gaston Mauger

Эта книга является первой в коллекции, которая включает в себя четыре тома. Грамматика написана специально для иностранцев и является не только оригинальным методом обучения французскому как иностранному, но и источником сведений о культуре и истории Франции.

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Extra resources for Cours De Langue Et De Civilisation Françaises

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For example, in the Mandarin dialect of Yangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, and Kunming, the groups of *voiced-initial and *voiceless-initial share the common tonal value [4], [5], [31], and [31], respectively. In the Xiang dialect of Changsha (䮯⋉), both groups maintain the same pitch value [24]. In the Gan dialects of Nanchang (ই᰼), both groups preserve the same pitch value [5]. Note that the Mandarin dialects of Yangzhou and Nanjing have no surviving original final stop, and the only syllable-final consonant is a glottal stop -Ƣ which was neutralized from *-p, *-t, and *-k.

1. 24 Neither of these subgroups developed tone-contrast in checked syllables. The Proto-Loloid can be subdivided into three language branches: Proto-Mosoid, Proto-Nasoid, and Proto-Lahoid. The languages in the Mosoid group, such as Nakhi (spelled “Naxi” (㓣㾯) in China) and Chiang (spelled “Qiang” (㖼䈝) in China), show “no tonal split” in checked syllables. It is very important to understand that the category “no tonal split” (in Matisoff’s terminology) does not reflect the real situation in Naxi or Mosuo.

25 In Matisoff’s analysis, the two-way tonal contrast in *checked syllables can be placed at least as far back as the *L period. Proto-Lahoid and Proto-Nasoid, which inherited the two checked-tone classes from *L, show two kinds of tonal split patterns. ) in the former group apply the regular rule of Matisoff’s Loloish tonal splits in that the *voiced initial syllables are lower-pitched, while the *voiceless initial syllables are higher-pitched. The languages (including Nasu and the Yi dialect of Luchuan (spelled “Luquan” in China)) in the latter group apply the tonal flip-flop, so that the *voiceless 28 Chapter Two initial syllables are lower-pitched than the *voiced initial ones.

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