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By Francisco Castro Viudez

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FormIV ’adaar (administer) VII ’inqaad (be led) VIII ’irtaa’H (relax, rest) X ’istajaab (respond LESSON SIX to) Form IV VII 2 m. sing. ’ada/irt ’inqa (d/t)t ’irtaHt (a/i and d/t imply free variation) 47 VIII X ’istaja/ibt Non-past tense: 3 m. sing. 2 m. sing. ) Exercise Conjugate the above verbs fully. —haat! —sheel! (/ee/, /oo/) IMPERATIVES These are formed from the non-past, and always have the long vowel of the non-past. go sleep bring see Past raaH naam jaab shaaf Non-past byirooH byinaam byijeeb byishoof Imperative rooH!

Khudoo! —maa or laa tuktub (/ee/, /oo/) Rule Take the non-past 2 m. sing, (without the /b/ prefix) and place before it maa or laa (this applies to derived-form verbs also). LESSON FOUR 37 Exercise Negate the eight imperatives listed above. Derived-form imperative (positive: see above for negative) Again these are completely systematic and predictable Non-past byirajji9 byikaatibkaatib! byinzil byita9arraf byita9aaraf byinfatiH byijtami9’ijtami9! byista9mil Imperative rajji9! ’anzil! ta9arraf! ta9aaraf!

First the bad news – Arabic verbs conjugate for number and gender (classical Arabic verbs have thirteen ‘persons’: singular, dual and plural). – In addition to indulging in fancies such as hollow verbs, assimilated verbs, doubly defective verbs and quadriliteral verbs,Arabic is prolific in derived forms of the same, viz. Forms II to XV. – For the ‘simple’ verb there are forty-four patterns possible for the verbal noun. Now the good news – Colloquial Arabic has no dual form in verb conjugation. e.

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