By Ranjit N. Ratnaike
This textbook presents a realistic and complete account of the administration of diarrhea and constipation within the aged. those universal problems will not be just a burden in themselves yet are usually manifestations of a extra critical underlying disease; hence, potent prognosis and therapy are necessary to increase caliber of existence. The chapters comprise updates on pathogenesis, analysis and remedy, and spotlight the vulnerability of the aged to diarrhea and its issues. The etiology of diarrhea is defined, together with infections of the gastrointestinal tract, and systemic ailments of which it's a symptom. The authors signify different disciplines: immunology, body structure, microbiology, meals, and psychiatry. The publication is geared toward geriatricians, basic practitioners, gastroenterologists, and allied medical experts.
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Additional info for Diarrhoea and Constipation in Geriatric Practice
Cell death eventually occurs. • • • • • • • The mechanism of diarrhoea in inﬂammatory bowel disease (IBD) (see Chapter 12) is complex and possibly involves several processes. Inﬂammatory mediators are important in the mechanism of diarrhoea in IBD. These inﬂammatory mediators are produced by damage to mast cells, macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils, and serve as powerful secretagogues. Inﬂammatory mediators with secretagogue activity are: Prostaglandin E2 Adenosine Cytokines Bradykinin Histamine Platelet activating factor Serotonin.
Aoike, A. et al. (1988). Eﬀect of aging on immunological memory in gastrointestinal tract induced by sheep red blood cells in mice. Gastroenterologia Japonica 23:13–17. F. (1993). Immunology and inﬂammation of the gastrointestinal tract. In Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management, ed. H. S. Fordtran, pp. 45–86. Philadelphia: Saunders. Kawanishi, H. (1993). Recent progress in senescence-associated gut mucosal immunity. Dig. Dis. 11:157–72. , Ajitsu, S. & Mirabella, S. (1990).
Secondly, by avoiding cross-reactions with self proteins leading to autoimmune phenomena. Tolerance induction has been studied in young and aged mice by oral administration of sheep red blood cells. Young (two-month-old) mice given sheep red blood cells orally for two weeks become tolerant to a subsequent systemic sheep red blood cell challenge. However, older (one year) mice resisted tolerance induction and produced a prominent systemic IgA response. This implies that the toleranceinducing function of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue declines with age.