By Jaakko Hintikka (auth.), Esa Saarinen (eds.)
This ebook is a suite of reports making use of game-theoretical options and concepts to analysing the semantics of normal language and a few formal languages. the majority of the publication contains a number of papers by means of Hintikka, Carlson and Saarinen and discusses numerous of the valuable difficulties of the semantics of average language.
The themes lined are the semantics of normal language quantifiers, conditionals, pronouns and anaphora extra typically. Hintikka’s recognized essay offering examples of "branching quantifier buildings" in English, in addition to one formulating his "any-every thesis", are integrated. The publication additionally contains Hintikka’s heavily argued philosophical dialogue of the relationships among the recent semantical video games with the language video games of Wittgenstein. different papers observe the game-theoretical method of formal languages together with stressful logics and annoying anaphora (Saarinen), deontic common sense and Ross’ paradox (Hintikka), and traditional predicate common sense (Rantala). The latter quantities to an explication of the "impossible attainable" worlds as is proven in Hintikka’s concluding paper.
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Extra resources for Game-Theoretical Semantics: Essays on Semantics by Hintikka, Carlson, Peacocke, Rantala, and Saarinen
For this reason, quantifier phrases cannot absolutely speaking be understood as picking out definite individuals, however 'arbitrarily selected'. Some of the precise rules for the games G(S) will be given below in Section 4. There the reader will also find detailed examples of what may happen in these games. We can nevertheless see already at this stage of discussion, that is to say without knowing anything more of my semantical games, how the game-theoretical idea allows us to overcome several of the difficulties mentioned earlier.
153-77 reprinted in the present volume, pp. 49-79. 4 . GAME-THEORETICAL SEMANTICS FOR A F R A G M E N T OF E N G L I S H Game-theoretical semantics can be extended easily from formal languages to a fragment of English. The two players can be kept intact QUANTIFIERS IN LOGIC AND NATURAL LANGUAGES 37 and so can the given domain D. ) In English, there are admittedly no variables which could be replaced by the names of individuals. However, what we can do is to substitute such a name for the whole quantifier phrase.
Furthermore, the same ordering principles show how the negationforming operation must function in English, thus giving us important insights into the semantics of English quantifiers as distinguished from logicians' formalized quantifiers and at the same time filling a gap in my presentation so far. For reasons of space, these ordering principles cannot be examined here, however. In general, it seems to me that the game-theoretical approach gives us a powerful and flexible theory of the semantics of quantifiers in natural languages.