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By Hubert J. DEFROMONT

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These modifications correspond to the types of possible gram­ matical permeability presented in b. and c. above, which do not involve incorporation nor necessarily loss of syntactic structures. (iii) The order of major arguments in Spanish, sensitive to semantic-prag­ matic rules, may also offer a ground for possible modifications of the type of (b) and (c). For instance, it is well-known that Spanish allows both SV and VS order ON THE PERMEABILITY OF GRAMMARS 25 with one-valency verbs (cf. Silva-Corvalan 1977; Ocampo 1989).

Because I would wake up screaming ON THE PERMEABILITY OF GRAMMARS 31 and my sister had to get up to see what was happening to me. / And (a) she'd come up to my bedside and (b) I was trembling, you could even hear my teeth striking together'. Thus, although the subject is not required in the second sentence in exx. 28-29, it is required in the highlighted positions in exx. 305 and 31. Intralanguage analyses and cross-language comparisons should take these facts into account, therefore, when examining the issue of pro-drop and of possible interlinguistic transfer.

25) a. b. Cuando Juanai vivia aqui ellai/t siempre nos invitaba a su casa. ' Cuando Juanai vivía aqui Øi/t siempre nos invitaba a su casa. e. increased preference for subject expression. Note that with respect to this phenomenon, the incorporation of elements foreign to the internal structure of the language would have to involve the occurrence of non-referential, "dummy" subjects, as in exx. 26-27. (26) *El está lloviendo. ' Not surprisingly, there isn't a single case of such non-referential, dummy subjects in the Spanish data examined.

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