Download Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials by L. F. Chen, C. K. Ong, C. P. Neo, V. V. Varadan, Vijay K. PDF

By L. F. Chen, C. K. Ong, C. P. Neo, V. V. Varadan, Vijay K. Varadan

The improvement of excessive velocity, excessive frequency circuits and structures calls for an knowing of the houses of fabrics performing at the microwave point. This entire reference units out to handle this requirement by means of offering information at the improvement of compatible size methodologies adapted for numerous fabrics and alertness platforms.

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2 Semiconductors There are two general categories of semiconductors: intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. An intrinsic semiconductor is also called a pure semiconductor or an undoped semiconductor. 2(b) is that of an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor, there are the same numbers of electrons as holes. Intrinsic semiconductors usually have high resistivity, and they are often used as the starting materials for fabricating extrinsic semiconductors. Silicon and germanium are typical intrinsic semiconductors.

Further increase in the strength of the magnetic field in the reverse direction results in further growth of the domains in the reverse direction until saturation in the reverse direction is achieved. When this field is reduced to zero, and then reversed back to the initial direction, we can get a closed hysteresis loop of the magnetic material. In most cases, magnetic materials are anisotropic for magnetization. For a hexagonal ferrite, there exists an easy-magnetization direction and a hardmagnetization direction.

For good conductors with very high conductivity, we usually use penetration depth and surface resistance to describe the properties of conductors. As the general properties of normal conductors have been discussed earlier, here we focus on two special types of conductors: perfect conductors and superconductors. It should be noted that perfect conductor is only a theoretical model, and no perfect conductor physically exists. A perfect conductor refers to a material within which there is no electric field at any frequency.

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