By Britt Mosegard Hansen
The primary objective of this examine is to clarify the character of the semantics / pragmatics contrast in either synchrony and diachrony. the writer proposes a definition of semantics and pragmatics that's orthogonal to the query of truth-conditionality, and discusses the prestige of varied varieties of that means with appreciate to this definition. A corollary target of the learn is to suggest an account of ways and why erstwhile pragmatically-determined components of that means may well, during time, develop into semanticized. the character, paths, and mechanisms of diachronic experience adjustments of the proper sort, in addition to the motivations for them, are mentioned in a few aspect. the writer combines insights from varied resources, prominently frame-based semantics, historic pragmatics, and Peircean semiotics, to reach at a version of linguistic which means that's either synchronically and diachronically dynamic, consequently in a position to integrating constitution and utilization. As a case research, the synchronic makes use of and diachronic evolution of the quite polyfunctional French phasal adverbs deja ('already'), encore ('still/yet'), toujours ('still'), and enfin ('finally') are analyzed in a few element, with specific consciousness being paid to the semantic vs pragmatic nature of some of the makes use of of this stuff. The booklet can be of curiosity to lexical semanticists, pragmaticians, old linguists, functional/cognitive linguists, discourse analysts, and semioticians.
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The vital goal of this research is to clarify the character of the semantics / pragmatics contrast in either synchrony and diachrony. the writer proposes a definition of semantics and pragmatics that's orthogonal to the query of truth-conditionality, and discusses the prestige of varied sorts of which means with admire to this definition.
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Extra resources for Particles at the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface: PART SEMANTICS/PRAGMATICS INTERF
But even if one adheres – as I will do in this book, and as is done also by Harder (1996) and Nølke et al. (2004: 36) – to a less radical version of the instructional view of meaning, in which truth conditions may be seen as an important, but nevertheless derived, feature of communicated meanings, we may assume that a great many linguistic items (including not only lexical items, but also grammatical morphemes and constructions, such as the superlative, cf. Fauconnier 1975) have the property of instructing the hearer to understand the concepts marked by them as occupying a given rung on some scale.
2 infra. g. Carston 2002: ch. 7 Thus, for instance, it is argued that the “explicature” of an utterance like (33) does not simply consist in the proposition that is linguistically expressed, namely “It will – at some future point in time – take the speaker, the hearer(s) and / or one or more third persons an amount of time superior to zero to get to a certain, contextually specified location, which is different from the one they currently find themselves in at the time of utterance”. That proposition is, of course, trivially true and hence uninformative in and of itself, so the explicature will consist, rather, in the inferentially strengthened proposition ”It will – at some future point in time – take the speaker, the hearer(s) and / or one or more third persons longer to get to a certain, contextually specified location, which is different from the one they currently find themselves in at the time of utterance, than the hearer(s) may think”: (33) It’ll take us some time to get there.
In both cases, of course, the imagined reply addresses itself directly to the implicature, as opposed to the “literal” meaning of the previous utterance: (62) (63) A. If you mow the lawn, I’ll give you $10. B. Oh mom, you’re so unreasonable! I was going to suggest I chop some fire wood. [In a café at 10am] A. Do you want a croissant with your coffee? B. I had breakfast just an hour ago. A. OK, I’ll just order one for myself, then. This difference in cognitive status may explain why, in Levinson’s (1995, 2000) systematization of the notion of GCI, it is assumed that no GCI can be based on the maxim of quality: that maxim has to do with what is true and false about the world, and such matters will typically be part of the communicative foreground.