By Ahmed Moutaouakil
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Extra info for Pragmatic Functions in a Functional Grammar of Arabic
Returning to the typology of contexts proposed above, we may distinguish utterances corresponding to the class of contexts CON I and to which, as a consequence. New Focus is assigned and utterances compatible with the class of contexts CON II and to which Constrastive Focus is assigned. Thus, just as with constituents, sentences taken as a whole may receive either New or Constrastive Focus. 1. New Focus Sentences to which New Focus is assigned correspond to CON I: in other words, they convey information that is not shared by speaker and addressee.
2. Case-marking of Focus terms In the preceding section, we established that Focus, being a predicationinternal pragmatic function and being assigned to a term that already has a semantic and possibly also a syntactic function, does not bestow any particular case-marking on the term with which it is associated. The term will be marked for its semantic (or, if relevant) syntactic function. The neutrality of Focus with respect to case-marking is equally true of New and Contrastive Focus. Let us consider some examples.
1. Terms to which Focus cannot be assigned As far as New Focus is concerned, all the terms of a predication can be Focused, no matter what their semantic and syntactic functions. dîban lahu friendSgen-3sG angry^cc punishmenta« for-3s 'Hâlid angrily slapped his son yesterday in front of his friends to punish him' On the other hand, the assignment of Constrastive Focus is subject to constraints that do not apply to New Focus. By way of example, I shall here mention only the constraints on the assignment of Focus to the termpredicate in a pseudo-cleft structure'^.