Engineering Transportation

# Download Production and transport of oil and gas by A Pál Szilas PDF By A Pál Szilas

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The latter can be calculated to a satisfactory degree of accuracy using Eq. 1 . 1 -8. The two equations respectively characterize the transition and fully turbulent regions. 1-7. 2-15 Determining the value of 5 requires in-plant or field tests. Approximate values are given in a diagram by Uhl (1967, 3). We have so far assumed the mean values T,Z and 2 to be constant all along the flow string. There are however, formulae that account also for changes of T, z and 1 along the string (Aziz 1962). Among them, the calculation method of Cullender and Smith permits us to determine accurately the pressure drop of flow in a vertical string.

I n designing relatively long pipelines for pressure drop, accuracy is little influenced by the fact that the pressure gradient is slightly higher in a short section near the input end than the steady-state value in the rest of the pipeline. When, however, relatively short pipelines are to be designed for pressure drop, the error due to use of the steady-state pressure gradient may be quite considerable. A procedure for computing pressure drops under transient structural and flow conditions has been developed by Ritter and Batycky (1967).

On finding that flow is laminar, we compute 3, by Eq. 1-3 and then the friction loss by Eq. 1-1. 3-2. 308 m if a t the given parameters of flow q = 200 m3/h and e = 880 kg/m3. 746 m/s in agreement with the foregoing example. Substituting the figures obtained into Eq. 3-16, we get XRepp 880 0 . 3 0 8 ° . 08 =- + 8 = 308. 338 Flow is laminar, it is therefore justified to use Eq. 208 308 I = -~ , NOW by Eq. 308 . If the flow curve does not obey the power luw, then in Eq. 3-16 p' means the ordinate intercept, a t D = 1, of the tangent to the flow curve plotted in an orthogonal bilogarithmic system of coordinates, and n means the 4 49 slope of said tangent.

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