By Hermann Haken, Anders Karlqvist, Uno Svedin
The chapters during this booklet centre round one major subject matter, the concept that of the computer and its use as metaphor in numerous contexts. this idea is deeply rooted in western tradition and is usually used to interpret complicated structures in nature and society. With the appearance of digital desktops, the computer metaphor utilized to pondering and the mind has becOIne much more pertinent. the assumption of a computer has replaced over the years. during this ebook those adjustments are made trans dad or mum, a number of facets of the desktop metaphor are mentioned and obstacles and pitfalls of the metaphor are elaborated. The chapters are written in a non-technical model and are obtainable to a wide readership of scientists and likewise laymen drawn to the medical according to spectives and logical foundations of the desktop idea that has been so influential in western pondering. the belief of the booklet has its beginning in a workshop held on the Sci entific Station in Abisko, Sweden, in may well 1990, the place a number of of the current authors participated. The assembly used to be equipped and spon sored via the Swedish Council for making plans and Coordination of Re seek (FRN). for the reason that 1983, the FRN has actively promoted a sequence of such annual occasions at Abisko, all of which were dedicated to the exploration of varied elements of advanced structures and their evolution.
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Extra resources for The Machine as Metaphor and Tool
1964): The Act of Creation (Macmillan, New York) Kristeva, J. (1982): Powers of Horror, translated by Leon Roudiez (Columbia University Press, New York) Kuhn, T. (1972): The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (University of Chicago Press, Chicago) 2nd ed. , Johnson, M. (1988): Metaphors We Live By (University of Chicago Press, Chicago) Leary, D. (1990): "Psyche's Muse: the Role of Metaphor in the History of Psychology" in Metaphors in the History of Psychology, ed. by D. Leary. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) pp.
Possible" does not mean "probable" in this context: It is highly improbable, for example, that natural words will turn out to have much in common with DNA ''words'', in the sense of possessing a large number of identical features. Curtains are not exactly like the firmament. Metonyms, simply invite us to look for unlikely relationships and tenuous links more often than they invite us to note that one orange is similar to another. That is how analogical reasoning promotes novel thoughts and new discoveries.
Two plus two will always equal four. The crisp sets, which support the existence of such fixed identities, will never wilt. In binary logic p will always be identical with p, and it will always be the exact opposite of not p, no matter what. Binary logic is the mind's defiant denial of the uncertainty which otherwise characterizes complexity, fluidity and chaos. In contrast, metonyms affirm and thrive on uncertainty and fluidity in a complex universe. They do this by encouraging a holistic orientation to reality, and by inviting us to perceive that everything is connected to everything else, as if the universe was as unified as mystics say it is.